Monday, April 2, 2018

Veni, vidi, vici

Latin verbs can exhibit their number, person, tense, voice and mood. In this lesson, only present tense indicative mood is considered.
  • Personal endings of words
    • -o/-m first person singular
    • -mus first person plural
    • -s second person singular
    • -tis second person plural
    • -t third person singular
    • -nt third person plural
The present tense: ago
The infinite form: agere
The perfect tense: egi
The supine form: actum




Supine: A term for an infinite verb form in some languages. In Latin, a type of verbal noun, used for the ablative and accusative case of an infinitive. In Swedish, a form related to the past participle, used to form perfect tenses.

Imperative of ago: age for singular and agite for plural.

  • Parsing:
    • bellum agere: agere is infinite  of ago, means "to do", bellum is war, bellum agere means "war to do" or "to wage the war"
    • bellum agunt: agunt is third person plural present tense indicative mood of ago, means "they wage the war"
    • Caesar bellum agit: agit is 3rd person singular present tense indicative mood of ago, "he/she/it does", therefore, Caesar wages war.
    • Gaius Iulius Caesar, inperator et pontifex maximus, bellum in Gallia agit: G.I.Caesar, general and chief priest, wages war in Gaul.
      • Unlike English, verbs always go after the subjects, in Latin, verbs can be every-where, so the ending of the verb indicates what or who is the subject.
    • To give a command, we need to use the imperative of the verb: 
      • Wage war, Caesar! -> Age bellum, Caesar!
      • Wage war, soldiers! -> Agite bellum, milites!
        • Singular imperative form of verb ends with -e and plural case is -te.
  • Verba (Vocabulary)
ago, agere, egi, actum: do, drive, act, lead
bellum: war (agere bellum -> to wage war)
bibo, bibere, bibi, bibitum: drink
caedo, caedere, cecidi, caesum: cut, cut down, slay
Caesar: Gaius Julius Caeser, politician, author and conquerer of Gaul, famously assassinated on March 15 (the Ides), 44 B.C.E.
cibum: food
dico, dicere, dixi, dictum: say, speak, tell (Dixitque Deus: and God said, Dixit(he said->3rd person singular perfect tense indicate mood)+que(and))
discipuli (m.), discipulae (f.): students (discipuli, discipulaeque -> male and female students)
edo, edere, edi, esum: eat
est: is
et: and
flores: flowers
Gallia: Gaul (France)
miles/milites: soldier/soldiers
mulier/mulieres: woman/women
-ne (enclitic particle): attaches to the first word in the sentence to indicate that what follows is a question
pono, ponere, posui, positum: put, place, put aside, put away
salve (singular) salvete (plural): greetings
vale (singular) valete (plural): be well, farewell
vendo, vendere, vendidi, venditum: sell
vinco, vincere, vici, victum: conquer
vinum: wine

  •  Practice
    • pono: pono, ponis, ponit, ponimus, ponitis, ponunt
    • bibo: bibo, bibis, bibit, bibimus, bibitis, bibunt
    • vinco: vinco, vincis, vincit, vincimus, vincitis, vincunt
    • to say -> dicere
    • Put away! -> Pone! (singular) Ponite! (plural)
    • to drink -> bibere
    • Eat! -> ede! (singular) edite! (plural)
    • We sell -> vendimus
    • to drive -> agere
    • She is driving -> agit
    • Drive! -> Age! (singular) Agite! (plural)
    • to conquer -> vincere
    • They are conquering -> Vincunt
    • They drink -> bibunt
    • We are cutting -> Caedimus
    • Are you cutting -> Caedisne?
    • You'all eat -> Editis
    • Caesar dicit -> Caesar says
    • Dicimus -> We say
    • Dicite, mulieres! -> Speak, women!
    • Caesar bellum agit -> Caesar wages war
    • Caesar flores caedit -> Caesar cuts flowers
    • Milites flores caedunt -> Soldiers cut flowers
    • Ponite flores, milites, et vincite! -> Put away flowers, soldiers, and conquer!
    • Milites cibum edunt -> The soldiers eat food
    • Pontifices vinum bibunt -> The priests drink wine.
    • Servum vendo -> I sell slave/serf/servant. serf -> work unit
    • Vince, Caesar! -> Conquer, Caesar!
    • Agite bellum, milites! -> Wage war, soldiers!
    • Cibum edimus et vinum bibimus. -> We eat food and drink wine.
      • Cibum/vinum -> end of -um is accusative
    • Edisne cibum? -> Are you eating food?
    • Bibitisne vinum? -> Are you drinking wine?

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