### Simple Examples of Parallel Computing of Cython

It is more convenient to calculate some properties during a molecular simulation process by accessing data from API of the molecular simulation program than calculating after the whole simulation progress and dumping all the coordinates. Especially, for sharply fluctuated properties such as Virial, RDF, etc., require massive frames to calculate. It is expensive to dump densely. For some Python-friendly molecular simulation softwares, e.g., lammps, hoomd-blue, galamost, etc.; it is easily to embed customized Python functions into the simulation control scripts. However, Python has a poor performance in massive calculations,

Notes:

This RDF function uses a linked cell list algorithm to reduce the calculation from $O(n^2)$ to $O(n)$, a small ranged RDF ($r<r_\mathrm{cut}$) is calculated, the RDF on $r\ge r_\mathrm{cut}$ can be calculated using an FFT algorithm by setting $r_\mathrm{bin}<\frac{r_\mathrm{cut}}{2}$

The second example is calculation of histogram N-d array by modulus of indices: $\int f(\mathbf{r})\delta(|\mathbf{r}|-r)\mathrm{d}\mathbf{r}$:

In function

`numba.cuda.jit`

does dramatically boost up the program, however, due to unknown reasons, GPU-accelerated molecular simulation softwares like hoomd-blue and galamost produce errors during simulations if one uses `numba.cuda.jit`

compiled functions. Therefore, I try to use Cython to generate C-functions to accelerate the calculations. Here I put a simple example of a pairwise property calculation function (RDF) using Cython-parallel method, it's also a learning note of mine:```
# cython: language_level=3, boundscheck=False, wraparound=False, cdivision=True
import numpy as np
cimport numpy as np
import cython
from cython.parallel import prange, parallel
cimport openmp
from libc.math cimport floor,sqrt,pow
from libc.stdlib cimport malloc, free
import multiprocessing
cdef long * unravel_index_f(long i, long[:] dim) nogil:
cdef long k, d
d = dim.shape[0]
cdef long * ret = <long *> malloc(d * sizeof(long))
for k in range(d):
ret[k] = i % dim[k]
i = (i - ret[k]) / dim[k]
return ret
cdef long ravel_index_f(long * vec, long[:] dim) nogil:
cdef long ret, d, tmp, k
d = dim.shape[0]
ret = (vec[0] + dim[0]) % dim[0]
tmp = dim[0]
for k in range(1,d):
ret += ((vec[k] + dim[k]) % dim[k]) * tmp
tmp *= dim[k]
return ret
cdef long jth_neighbour(long * veci, long * vecj, long[:] dim) nogil:
cdef long ret, d, tmp, k
d = dim.shape[0]
ret = (veci[0] + vecj[0] - 1 + dim[0]) % dim[0]
# re-ravel tmpi + tmpj - 1 to cell_j
# -1 for indices from -1, -1, -1 to 1, 1, 1 rather than 0,0,0 to 2,2,2
tmp = dim[0]
for k in range(1, d):
ret += ((veci[k] + vecj[k] - 1 + dim[k]) % dim[k]) * tmp
tmp *= dim[k]
return ret
cdef double pbc_dist(double[:] x, double[:] y, double[:] b) nogil:
cdef long i, d
cdef double tmp=0, r=0
d = b.shape[0]
for i in range(d):
tmp = x[i]-y[i]
tmp = tmp - b[i] * floor(tmp/b[i]+0.5)
r = r + pow(tmp, 2)
return sqrt(r)
cdef long cell_id(double[:] p, double[:] box, long[:] ibox) nogil:
# In the Fortran way
cdef long ret, tmp, i, n
n = p.shape[0]
ret = <long> floor((p[0] / box[0] + 0.5) * ibox[0])
tmp = ibox[0]
for i in range(1, n):
ret = ret + tmp * <long> floor((p[i] / box[i] + 0.5) * ibox[i])
tmp = tmp * ibox[i]
return ret
cdef void linked_cl(double[:, :] pos, double[:] box, long[:] ibox, long[:] head, long[:] body) nogil:
cdef long i, n, ic
n = pos.shape[0]
for i in range(n):
ic = cell_id(pos[i], box, ibox)
body[i] = head[ic]
head[ic] = i
def rdf(double[:,:] x, double[:,:] y, double[:] box, double bs, long nbins):
cdef long i, j, k, l, n, m, d3, d, ic, jc
cdef np.ndarray[np.double_t, ndim=2] ret
cdef long[:] head, body, ibox, dim
cdef double r, r_cut
cdef long ** j_vecs
cdef long * veci
cdef int num_threads, thread_num
num_threads = multiprocessing.cpu_count()
r_cut = nbins * bs
n = x.shape[0]
d = x.shape[1]
m = y.shape[0]
d3 = 3 ** d
ibox = np.zeros((d,), dtype=np.int64)
for i in range(d):
ibox[i] = <long> floor(box[i] / r_cut + 0.5)
head = np.zeros(np.multiply.reduce(ibox), dtype=np.int64) - 1
body = np.zeros((m,), dtype=np.int64) - 1
linked_cl(y, box, ibox, head, body)
ret = np.zeros((num_threads, nbins), dtype=np.float)
dim = np.zeros((d,), dtype=np.int64) + 3
j_vecs = <long **> malloc(sizeof(long *) * d3)
for i in range(d3):
j_vecs[i] = unravel_index_f(i, dim)
with nogil, parallel(num_threads=num_threads):
for i in prange(n, schedule='dynamic'):
ic = cell_id(x[i], box, ibox)
thread_num = openmp.omp_get_thread_num()
veci = unravel_index_f(ic, ibox)
for j in range(d3):
jc = jth_neighbour(veci, j_vecs[j], ibox)
k = head[jc]
while k != -1:
r = pbc_dist(x[i], y[k], box)
if r < r_cut:
l = <long> (r/bs)
ret[thread_num, l]+=1
k = body[k]
free(veci) # arrays created by malloc should be freed. (in unravel_index_f)
free(j_vecs) # without calling free(), memory leak would happen.
return np.sum(ret, axis=0)
```

Notes:

`def`

means Python function and`cdef`

means C functions;- Arrays declared by
`double[:]`

etc. are`memoryslice`

and can be conveniently initialized by`np.zeros`

or reading an`np.ndarray`

as function parameter; - Without GIL, any calling of Python function is forbidden, the array must be initialized and declared in the C method;
- In
`prange`

loop, variables are thread-local (see the generated`.c`

file, in section`#pragma omp parallel`

), there is no explicit way to call an atomic operation in Cython (using`with gil`

results in very low efficiency), hence the result is generated as`ret = np.zeros((n, nbins), ...`

so that in each thread`i`

that`ret[i]`

are independent, or generate`ret`

as (num_threads, data structure...), just keep independent amongst threads and in`i`

th loop, call`openmp.omp_get_thread_num()`

to get the current thread's id; `<long>`

is a type casting.

This RDF function uses a linked cell list algorithm to reduce the calculation from $O(n^2)$ to $O(n)$, a small ranged RDF ($r<r_\mathrm{cut}$) is calculated, the RDF on $r\ge r_\mathrm{cut}$ can be calculated using an FFT algorithm by setting $r_\mathrm{bin}<\frac{r_\mathrm{cut}}{2}$

The second example is calculation of histogram N-d array by modulus of indices: $\int f(\mathbf{r})\delta(|\mathbf{r}|-r)\mathrm{d}\mathbf{r}$:

```
# cython: language_level=3, boundscheck=False, wraparound=False, cdivision=True
import numpy as np
cimport numpy as np
import cython
from cython.parallel import prange, parallel
cimport openmp
from libc.math cimport floor,sqrt,pow
from libc.stdlib cimport malloc, free
import multiprocessing
cdef double unravel_index_f_r(long i, long[:] dim) nogil:
# unravel in Fortran way
cdef long k, d, tmp
cdef double r
d = dim.shape[0]
for k in range(d):
tmp = i % dim[k]
r += <double> (tmp)**2
i = (i - tmp) / dim[k]
return sqrt(r)
def hist_to_r(double[:] x, long[:] shape, double dr, double bs, double rc):
cdef long i, n, j, n_bins
cdef np.ndarray[np.double_t, ndim=2] ret, count
cdef int num_threads, thread_num
n_bins = <long> (rc / bs)
num_threads = multiprocessing.cpu_count()
ret = np.zeros((num_threads, n_bins), dtype=np.float64)
count = np.zeros((num_threads, n_bins), dtype=np.float64)
n = x.shape[0]
with nogil, parallel(num_threads=num_threads):
for i in prange(n, schedule='dynamic'):
j = <long> (unravel_index_f_r(i, shape)*dr/bs)
thread_num = openmp.omp_get_thread_num()
if j < n_bins:
ret[thread_num, j] += x[i]
count[thread_num, j] += 1
return np.sum(ret,axis=0), np.sum(count,axis=0)
```

In function

`unravel_index_f_r`

, the index is unraveled in the `Fortran`

way, therefore, calling `hist_to_r`

requires `x.ravel(order='F')`

.
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